PRESENT > PAST
Ex: “It is raining.”> He told me it was raining.
PAST TENSE, PRESENT PERFECT > PAST PERFECT
Ex:“I wrote the letter.” > She admitted she had written the letter.
“I have lost my keys.” > She said she had lost her keys.
FUTURE > CONDITIONAL
Ex: “I shall/will write soon.” > She promised she would write soon.
BUT: “It is going to rain.” > He said it was going to rain.
“I am leaving tonight.” > He said he was leaving that night.
NOTE: this is PRESENT TENSE with FUTURE MEANING
FUTURE PERFECT > CONDITIONAL PERFECT
Ex: “Will the mail have arrived by noon?” > He asked if the mail would have arrived by noon.
you > I / I > he / your > my / my > his / our > their etc.
Ex: “You can have my car.” > He said I could have his car.
this/that > these/those today > that day
here > there tonight > that night
now > then
yesterday > the day before / the previous day
tomorrow > the day after / the next day / the following day
a fortnight ago > two weeks before / two weeks earlier
next year > the year after / the following year
NOTE: come > go // go > come
Ex.: “Are you coming to the party with us ?” > They asked if I was going to the party with them.
Ex: “Are you joining us?”
> They asked me / They wanted to know / They wondered IF / WHETHER I was joining
Ex: “Shut the window, please.” > He politely asked me to shut the window.
admit answer add protest promise maintain
implore reply explain warn wonder exclaim etc.
Ex: “Don’t touch this wire.” > He warned me not to touch that wire.
(because, as, but, although etc.) or an additional reporting verb (and he added/explained )
Ex: “Shut the window, please! It’s getting cold in here.” > He requested me to shut the window because it was getting cold in there.
can > could / was able to
Ex: “I can’t come.” > He informed me he couldn’t come.
“I can still walk very fast.” > Grampa maintained he was still able to walk very fast.
could (“könnte”) > could (unchanged)
couldn’t (“konnte nicht”) > hadn’t been able to
Ex: “Could you help me?” > He asked me if I could help him.
“I couldn’t find it.” > He said he hadn’t been able to find it.
may > might
Ex: “It may be too late.” > He feared it might be too late.
shall > should
Ex: “Shall I buy the car?” > He wondered whether he should buy the car.
must > must (unchanged) / had to; mustn’t > mustn’t (unchanged) / wasn’t allowed to
Ex: “I must go. > He said he /must/had to/ go.
“You mustn’t smoke in here.” > He reminded me I /mustn’t/wasn’t allowed
need / needn’t > needed / didn’t need to; didnt have to
Ex: “You needn’t come to the office.” > He said I /needn’t/didn’t have to/ go to the
if the reported statement is TIMELESS:
Ex: “Water freezes at zero.” > The teacher taught us that water freezes at zero.
with CONDITIONALS (could,would,should,ought,might) and PAST PERFECT forms:
Ex: “I would rather leave.” > He said he would rather leave.
“I had better hurry.” > She said she had better hurry.
with CONDITIONAL CLAUSES Type 2 & Type 3 (to avoid change of meaning):
Ex: “I would take part if I could.” > He said he would take part if he could.
BUT: CONDITIONAL Type 1 is transformed into Type 2 (no change of meaning):
Ex: “I’ll join you if I can find the time.” > He said he would join us if he could find the