Latin

In Academic Writing, Latin stills enjoys a widespread, if limited, usage owing to its origins as the lingua franca of science. Often, a Latin phrase has established itself as the standard expression, with only a rough equivalent in English. For our purposes here, you will meet the most commonly used Latin expressions across a wide range of academic disciplines. Some you will be expected to recognize receptively, others to use actively. Below you will find a list of such Latin expressions with their English equivalent.

Latin abbreviations and expressions commonly used to write up research:

Short Form

Transcription

Equivalent

Example

i.e.

id est

that is

Several methods were used (i.e., case study, expert interview, survey).

e.g.

exempli gratia

for example

Specimens from the same genus (e.g. salvia x and y) were examined.

etc.

et cetera

and others (things)

Despite our best efforts (repeated requests for interviews, multiiple data collection methods, etc), we failed to collect sufficient data.

et al.

et alii

and others (people)

According to Biber et al. (2002), this aspect of language use has been long overlooked.

ibid.

ibidem

the same as the previous reference

In Johnson (ibid., p. 72), we find examples of outcropping in fluvial formations that previous research failed to turn up.

P.S.

post scriptum

after writing

(at the end of a letter, email, etc):

P.S. Don’t forget to send a copy of the transcriptions.

N.B.

nota bene

take note / watch out!

This longitudinal study exposed some of the weaknesses in our research (N.B. It did not, however, provide any efforts to explain causality).

C.V.

curriculum vitae

(N.B. NOT the same as a resume!)

Your CV should contain a chronological listing of your academic and professional achievements to date.

viz.

vidivicet

namely

The study failed to confirm the null-hypothesis (viz, that financial markets conform to Gaussian curves).

cf.

confer

compare

We examined current literature (cp. Marks, 2002; Stevens, 2007b) …

ca.

circa

about, approx.

Our expected costs will run to ca. EUR 500, primarily for expenses and interview fees.

errata

 

errors

Please see the errata sheet attached to this addition of your study material.

sic

 

thus (used when original source contains an error)

Markow (2007) quotes one student as writing: “they were generally pleased with there (sic) progress.”