Category Archives: Grammar Resource

grammar resource file: information on tenses, aspect, and mood in verb clauses

Overview: Tenses

  (I) THE PRESENT TENSE (A) PRESENT TENSE: continuous [to be + V-ing] 1 common with dynamic verbs think = “überlegen” (e.g. run, rain) think = “glauben” (static) I think he is thinking of emigrating. 2 actions in progress at… read more

Passive Verbs

Purpose The passive voice is used extensively in professional writing, making up 25% of all verb uses in published text (approximately 18,500 occurrences per million words). In spoken English, by way of contrast, its use is limited to 2% of… read more

Passive Voice

Purpose The passive voice is used extensively in professional writing, making up 25% of all verb uses in published text (approximately 18,500 occurrences per million words).  In spoken English, by way of contrast, its use is limited to 2% of read more

Modals

Linguistically, the group of modals in English function as pairs: will / would; can/ could; should / must; may / might. Interestingly, this is also their order of frequency. So “will” is the most frequent, followed by its cousin “would”; read more

Present Perfect Aspect

  The Present Perfect Simple  is used to express the effect of a past action on the present situation (often with ‘already’, ‘yet’, ‘not yet’). Ex.: I have (already) seen this film. (= I know it) Have you eaten yet? – read more

Relative Clauses

The Relative Pronouns Case for Persons for Things & Animals for Things & Persons in Defining Clauses

Nominative

Genitive Dative

Accusative

WHO

WHOSE (TO) WHOM WHO(M)

WHICH

WHOSE / OF WHICH (TO) WHICH WHICH

THAT

THAT

The Relative

read more

Modal Verbs: Properties

Modal verbs can be distinguished according to the following properties: 1) the verb that follows does not take the infinitive form: He should be arriving anytime now. 2) it does not appear in the same sentence with another modal verb:  … read more

Reported Speech

  When transforming sentences from DIRECT SPEECH into REPORTED SPEECH, the following CHANGES have to be made (unless you report within the same time frame, e.g. the same day):   BACKSHIFT OF TENSES if the REPORTING VERB is in the PAST        PRESENT read more

Past Tenses

  The Past Simple Tense  The Past Tense is used for actions or events which happened at a definite point of time or place in the past (whether mentioned or not). The focus is on the factual aspect of the action read more

Present Tenses

  The Present Simple Tense        a)  The Simple Form is used with static verbs, i.e. verbs denoting feelings, mental states (opinion), relations, possession: agree, prefer, believe, cost, concern, possess, belong etc.        b)  to express habits:           Ex: Our children eat a read more

Future Time

The Future Time can be expressed in the following ways: 1. with the Simple Present Tense + a future time adverb a) for a definite or regular future arrangement Ex: The next annual meeting is in July. (= will be read more