[3.3] Essential Contracted Forms

English takes the reduction principle to an even further extreme: the reduced words or linking sounds are often full-fledged auxiliaries and other parts of speech. Practice these sounds below.

  Full Form Reduced Form Comments
BE I am I’m  
  you are you’re = your
  he is he’s  
  she is she’s  
  it is it’s = its
  we are we’re ≠ were
  they are they’re = there, their
HAVE I have I’ve auxiliary verb
  you have you’ve  
  he has he’s  
  she has she’s  
  it has it’s = its
  we have we’ve  
  they have they’ve  
WILL I will I’ll ≠ ill
  you will you’ll  
  he will he’ll ≠ hell
  she will she’ll  
  it will it’ll /ɪtɭ/
  we will we’ll ≠ well; = wheel
  they will they’ll  
HAD / WOULD I had / would I’d  
  you had / would you’d  
  he had / would he’d  
  she had / would she’d  
  it had / would it’d /ɪtəd/
  we had / would we’d  
  they had / would they’d  
NOT are not aren’t  
  were not weren’t  
  do not don’t  
  will not won’t  
  cannot can’t  
  must not mustn’t  
THERE there is there’s  
  there are there’re  
  there will there’ll  
  there had / would there’d